The hottest xuxiaolan industrial Internet good med

  • Detail

Xu Xiaolan: the "good medicine" of industrial interconnection can cure the "epidemic" of small and medium-sized enterprises in the manufacturing industry. Xu Xiaolan, President of the China Institute of industrial interconnection. First, the epidemic has intensified the cold winter of small and medium-sized enterprises in the manufacturing industry. Since December 2019, novel coronavirus pneumonitis has been raging in China for more than two months. While the lives of the broad masses of the people are facing great risks, China's economy has also cast a shadow over this, The first is the large number of small and medium-sized enterprises that are already facing development difficulties in 2019

the number of small and medium-sized enterprises in China has reached more than 30 million, accounting for more than 90% of the total number of enterprises, contributing more than 50% of the national tax revenue, more than 60% of GDP, more than 70% of technological innovation achievements and more than 80% of labor employment. They are an important part of China's economy. Small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises, as the main force, have supported half of the development of China's manufacturing industry. However, with the continuous slowdown of global macroeconomic growth and the slowdown of export growth caused by Sino US trade frictions, the downward pressure on the domestic economy has increased, and small and medium-sized enterprises are facing greater difficulties. In the fourth quarter of 2019, China's SME development index (SMEDI) was only 92.7, which has been below the boom threshold of 100 for eight consecutive years since the third quarter of 2011, of which the industrial sub industry index was 92.5, lower than the overall index, and the development of manufacturing SMEs is under pressure

encountering the epidemic under such a background is even worse for small and medium-sized enterprises. In order to control the epidemic, many places across the country have taken measures such as closing cities, roads and delaying construction, which has a huge impact on small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises. First, the epidemic has reduced customer demand and business orders; Second, the circulation of raw materials, labor and other production factors required by enterprises is blocked, making it difficult to carry out normal production; Third, the sales channel is blocked, and the products already produced by the enterprise cannot be realized. At the same time, enterprises also need to bear rigid expenses such as personnel wages, factory rent, loan interest, and various economic expenses such as liquidated damages that may be caused by failure to deliver products normally, so they have to face a severe survival crisis

according to the joint investigation of Tsinghua University School of economics and management, Peking University HSBC School of business, and Beijing small and micro enterprise integrated financial services Co., Ltd., 85.01% of enterprises cannot maintain cash for more than three months due to the epidemic, and nearly 30% of enterprises estimate that the epidemic will lead to a decline in operating income of more than 50% in 2020. In the long run, if this situation cannot be effectively improved, leading to the collapse of a large number of small and medium-sized enterprises, it will bring a large number of people unemployment, lead to the shrinkage of market consumption capacity, the sales revenue of small and medium-sized enterprises will continue to decline, and more enterprises will close down, forming a vicious circle

as the most important group of productivity in China, the world's factory, the epidemic of small and medium-sized enterprises has gradually spread abroad through the global industrial chain. Enterprises all over the world have stopped production due to the supply interruption of Chinese enterprises, and have to look for alternatives everywhere. Once substitutes become daily necessities, the core position of made in China in the global supply chain will be loosened, and the manufacturing industry will face the risk of outflow. If this situation cannot be effectively contained, made in China may face an unprecedented crisis. Therefore, how to make mass manufacturing 8 It is a serious problem that we need to consider urgently at present for small and medium-sized enterprises in the pelletizer operation industry to get rid of the plight of the epidemic and get on the right track of development as soon as possible

Second, the source of the epidemic of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises behind the epidemic crisis

this epidemic crisis has exposed the fragile anti risk ability of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises in China. The fundamental reason lies in the backward production mode, insufficient supply chain control, poor financing ability and lack of human resources of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises in China. These four factors reduce the competitiveness of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises and seriously restrict their further development

1. Backward production mode is difficult to obtain rich market profits

small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises in China are mainly concentrated in labor-intensive industries. Before the dividends of mass production and population costs have faded, most small and medium-sized enterprises have achieved scale growth and capital accumulation through an extensive development path of investment to expand production, reinvestment and expansion of production. However, with the social and economic progress, raw material costs, labor costs, site costs and other operating costs continue to rise, small and medium-sized enterprises have been difficult to rely on this development model to continue to survive

on the one hand, the traditional market is approaching saturation, and corporate profits continue to decline. The production and manufacturing links in which a large number of small and medium-sized enterprises are located are low profit links in the industrial chain. Compared with the 20%-50% profit margin of R & D and design, brand marketing and other links, the profit margin of high-end manufacturing links is only 10%-20%, and the profit margin of low-end production and manufacturing links is only 2%-3%. At the same time, a large number of low-end labor-intensive manufacturing links lack technical barriers, and latecomers can easily enter. The market quickly forms a red sea, and product homogenization competition is serious. In order to obtain the market, enterprises have to further reduce product prices and compress profit space, resulting in a large number of small and medium-sized enterprises in the marginal state of low profits and even losses. This epidemic also reflects that labor-intensive industries are greatly affected by emergencies, and enterprises urgently need to transform to technology intensive industries

on the other hand, emerging markets are beginning to sprout, and enterprises are weak in market development. With social development, the upgrading of diversified, high-quality and personalized consumption structure breeds new market demand and puts forward higher requirements for industrial development. According to the statistics of the Ministry of Commerce, safety, design and quality have become the focus of Chinese consumers, and the demand has increased significantly. However, this is a dislocation with the supply behavior of mass production and the pursuit of economies of scale of a large number of domestic small and medium-sized enterprises. Products can not meet market demand, and a large number of market shares can only be occupied by imported products. The majority of small and medium-sized enterprises encounter the dilemma of declining orders, overcapacity and inability to make profits

2. Insufficient supply can do a good job in cleaning electromechanical products regularly. It is difficult to control the chain to cope with sudden market changes.

the importance of supply chain for enterprises is self-evident. Without a complete supply chain, enterprises cannot complete production and sales, and the survival and development of enterprises are impossible. Compared with other industries, manufacturing enterprises, as the intermediate link of the supply chain, have higher requirements for upstream and downstream management of the supply chain. However, at present, the supply chain control of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises in China is seriously insufficient, which makes it difficult for enterprises to cope with all kinds of sudden changes in the market

on the one hand, small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises have weak ability to manage the supply chain. When facing the upstream procurement of the supply chain, a large number of enterprises do not carry out precise calculation, resulting in insufficient or surplus procurement of raw materials, resulting in lack of output or waste of funds. When facing the downstream sales of the supply chain, it failed to obtain the production plan, procurement plan and other information of customers in time, and it was unable to reasonably schedule production and closely connect demand, resulting in overcapacity, inventory backlog, insufficient output, delayed delivery and many other problems

on the other hand, the supply chain structure of a large number of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises is relatively rigid, and there are often only a few fixed partners in the upstream and downstream. Once a partner has sudden business problems, it may face the crisis of supply chain disruption, resulting in a serious shortage of raw materials or marketable products. The temporary replacement of partners is difficult and costly, which cannot effectively solve the urgent needs of enterprises

3. Poor financing ability is difficult to meet the capital needs of operation

rising operating costs, long collection periods, and limited cash reserves make small and medium-sized enterprises face greater cash pressure. Whether they can successfully finance has become the key factor to maintain the survival of small and medium-sized enterprises. Especially when emergencies occur, the cash flow of small and medium-sized enterprises will face more severe challenges. However, limited by the current poor profitability, insufficient fixed assets, low current ratio and unreasonable current asset structure of small and medium-sized enterprises, they have to face the problems of few financing channels and high financing costs

in terms of financing channels, the overall development of China's investment and financing market is not mature, and a multi-level investment and financing system covering all links of the industrial chain has not been established. The financing means that small and medium-sized enterprises can use are single, most of the financing can only be achieved through bank loans and private loans, and there are few users of capital raising methods such as stocks, funds and bonds. The reason is that the current relevant policies, laws and regulations set a high threshold for enterprises (3) to pour concrete with a strength grade of not less than C20 in the pit and raise funds through the stock market, bond market and other means. Most small and medium-sized enterprises are limited by their business level, unable to meet the corresponding requirements, and it is difficult to obtain sufficient financial support to maintain the operation of enterprises

in terms of financing costs, small and medium-sized enterprises face high financing costs even if they obtain funds through only banks and private loans. At present, the primary supply objects of bank loans in China are the government and large enterprises. The operation of small and medium-sized enterprises is uncertain, and the cooperation with small and medium-sized enterprises will make banks face greater credit risk and market risk. Therefore, when banks lend to small and medium-sized enterprises, they will not only put forward requirements such as short-term and small amount, but also put forward higher interest rates. According to the different development of small and medium-sized enterprises, the annualized interest rate can rise by 30% - 200% compared with the benchmark expected annualized interest rate. Due to the lack of supervision, private lending has higher interest rates, and the maximum annual interest rate in some regions may even exceed 100%

4. The lack of talent resources is difficult to promote the transformation and upgrading of enterprises.

talent is the most basic resource to promote the development of enterprises and the most basic factor to determine the development direction of enterprises. With social development and technological progress, talents play an increasingly important role in the development of enterprises, and enterprises have higher and more comprehensive requirements for talents. Enterprises hope to build core competitiveness through digital transformation and upgrading. They not only need excellent talents to build a modern management system, but also need cutting-edge talents to carry out research and development of key technologies. However, for most small and medium-sized enterprises, the lack of high-quality talents has become a stubborn disease that hinders the development of enterprises

from a macro perspective, the overall supply of high-end talents in China's manufacturing industry is seriously insufficient. At present, the requirements of manufacturing industry for talents are constantly improving, and integrated talents have become the main demand target of China's manufacturing industry. However, at present, there are some problems in the training of manufacturing talents in China, such as insufficient understanding of changes in requirements, lack of overall planning and coordination, lagging behind in the construction of training bases, and the ability of trained talents is out of line with the needs of enterprises, resulting in a gap of tens of millions of high skilled talents in the manufacturing industry

from a micro perspective, due to the operating level, most small and medium-sized enterprises generally have many problems, such as low popularity, low salary, limited growth space, non-standard management, lack of protection of legitimate rights and interests, and some small and medium-sized enterprises have problems such as remote geographical location, inconvenient transportation, poor working environment, etc., which are difficult to attract enough talents. In the face of competition from other industries such as Internet, finance and large enterprises in the same industry, it is difficult to attract excellent talents to improve the development level of enterprises

III. industrial interconnection is a good medicine for the treatment of small and medium-sized enterprises in the manufacturing industry

industrial interconnection is the comprehensive connection of all elements of the industrial economy, the whole industrial chain and the whole value chain. Enabling the manufacturing industry through a new generation of information technology, data-driven industrial transformation and upgrading, and realizing resource sharing and optimal allocation are of great significance for overcoming the development difficulties of small and medium-sized enterprises

Copyright © 2011 JIN SHI